On February 2,1848, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed that brought an end of the Mexican-American War. The war lasted from 1846-1848. The tensions between Mexico and America began when Mexico severed relations with the U.S. in March 1845. By September of 1845, President James K. Polk sent a representative to Mexico City to negotiate the disputed Texas border, settle U.S. claims against Mexico, and to purchase New Mexico and California for up to $30 million. The President of Mexico refused to meet with the representative and President Polk responded by sending troops to occupy the disputed area. Mexico saw the movement of troops into this are as an act of aggression and sent troops across the Rio Grande. This advance by Mexican troops was seen as an invasion on American soil and America declared war on Mexico.
In September 1847, The Mexican army was defeated and Mexico City fell. It was after this that the Mexican government surrendered and peace negotiations began. On February 2,1848 the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed, officially ending the war. In the treaty the United states gained 525,000 square miles of territory, This territory included lands that made up all or parts of present-day Arixona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Wyoming. The Mexican government also gave up any claims to Texas and agreed to recognize the Rio Grande as the border between the two countries. America agreed to pay Mexico $15 million and agreed to settle all claims of U.S. citizens against Mexico.
This is a very important part in American history because it led to the acquisition of territories that eventually became states. It also ended hostilities and border disputes with Mexico. During the war it is estimated that approximately 13,000 Americans died and 4,000 were wounded. The Mexican losses are estimated at approximately 25,000 people, which include around 1,000 civilians. While this was a devastating war for both sides it allowed for the United States to be what it is today.